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Animated Iteration

Andy Warhol’s’ use of two silver canvases on which the artist silk screened a photograph of Marilyn Monroe fifty times (Khan Academy, 2015) .With each iteration of the photo  we can see a degradation the details within the picture. However, despite the loss of fine details, our minds are still able to process what is there in order to recognise the familiar face of Monroe, thus  creating interesting artwork.

Marilyn Diptych 1962 by Andy Warhol 1928-1987

Marilyn Diptych 1962, Andy Warhol 1928-1987 Purchased 1980 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T03093

Artworks like Marilyn Diptych are a  simple man made example of how coding can work. The main difference being, that with a code that is written within a computer, with each loop (iteration) of the code, there is no degrading of the image that is being generated. However, the end result is no less exciting or artistic. Below I have created a rather simple pattern, however the process it took to generate this code was quite complex.

pattern-1

With the use of a few YouTube tutorials I was able to generate my own small animation using code processing. The animated artwork that I have generated seems simple, 5 spirals that rotate outwards fading to white each time they are repeated. However it took a significant amount of trial and (a lot of) error to get to this seemingly simple animation. Aesthetically, the animation is soothing, the colours cool. You watch the spirals for hours as they are hypnotic.

Code:

float a = 0; //calls a to begin at point 0
float s; //size of the ellipse
float maxs =20; //max size of ellipse 
float mins =5; //minimum size of the ellipse
float grow = random (0.15, 0.25); //size the ellipse grows by

void setup() { //set up the page
 size (800, 800); //size of page
 background (255); //backgroud-white (0 black)
 smooth(); //smooths out the animation
 frameRate(26); //pace of the animation
 ellipseMode(CENTER); //ensure x/y co-ordinates of ellipse is at their centre
}

void draw() { //starts the drawing. Where the code goes

 fill(255, 15); // 255 is the colour, 8 is the opacity
 noStroke ();
 rect (0, 0, 800, 800); //rectangle covers the screen

 noStroke(); //the ellipse will not have a stroke
 translate(200, 200); //changes x,y axis to the middle of the page where image rotates
 rotate(-a); //changes the direction of the rotation
 fill(random(244), random (12), random (214)); // fill pink
 ellipse (0 + a, 0, s, s + 5); //creates ellipse

 resetMatrix(); // resets the x, y axis to 0 again
 translate(600, 200); //changes x,y axis to the middle of the page where image rotates
 rotate(a);
 fill(random (197), random (5), random (245)); // fill purple
 ellipse (0 - a, 0, s + 10, s ); //creates ellipse
 a = a + 0.2; //increases a location from 0 by 1 pixel

 resetMatrix(); // resets the x, y axis to 0 again
 translate(width/2, height/2); //changes x,y axis to the middle of the page where image rotates
 rotate(a);
 fill(random(5), random (22), random (245));
 ; // fill blue
 ellipse (a, a, s, s ); //creates ellipse
 a = a + 1; //increases a location from 0 by 1 pixel

 resetMatrix(); // resets the x, y axis to 0 again
 translate(200, 600); //changes x,y axis to the middle of the page where image rotates
 rotate(a);
 fill(random (197), random (5), random (245)); // fill purple
 ellipse(0 - a, 0, s + 15, s + 5); //creates ellipse

 resetMatrix(); // resets the x, y axis to 0 again
 translate(600, 600); //changes x,y axis to the middle of the page where image rotates
 rotate(-a);
 fill(random(244), random (12), random (214)); // fill pink
 ellipse (0 - a, 0, s, s + 5); //creates ellipse
 s = s + grow;
 if (s > maxs) { //if s is larger than max size then grow will decrese
 s = maxs;
 grow = -grow;
 }
 if (s < mins) { //if s smaller than min size then grow will decrese
 s = mins;
 grow= -grow;
 }
 if (a >100) { // once the spiral reaches 100 pixels it re-sets to zero
 a = 0; 
 }
}

References:

Abe Pazos,2011, YouTube Video,Learn programming 13: event happening only sometimes, August 9, viewed 19 September 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FVyv6Ebok1k&index=13&list=PL632BB8C3F7E776BA&gt;

Abe Pazos, 2011, YouTube Video, Learn programming 22: stars blinking at night (fade out effect), August 15, viewed 19 September 2016,< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=spGP0B8SGnk&index=22&list=PL632BB8C3F7E776BA>

Khan Academy, 2015, expression to pop art, Warhol, Marilyn Diptych,viewed 20 September 2016, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-1010/pop/a/warhol-marilyn-diptych

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Coding and Decoding

John Cages Absolute Silence suggests that this performance generates no sound what so ever. Yet, ironically, when performed there can never actually be “absolute silence” because, depending on the location, there will always be some form of background noise.

From the first time it was performed in 1916, to present day, this piece has garnered a fair bit of popularity amongst many musicians and artists. The concept behind this piece repeated, again and again, for audiences around the world. The score is certainly a controversial, inspiring, surprising, infamous, perplexing, and influential musical works. (Gann, 2010 p4)

john-cage-4-33-defies-silence

Kern, K 2016, William Marx of John Cage’s 4’33, MaCallum Theatre, May, viewed 11 August 2016, <www.thepiono.sg/piano/read/john-cages-433-defies-silence 

For those that have not been to a performance might believe that this is a simplistic art piece. The lack of notes on the sheet music, might seem an easy composition. However, once implemented, is actually far more complex when you consider that each time the end result is completely different to the previous performance. This is because audiences are asked to focus on the noises that surrounds them, rather that listening to the melodies they might expect to come from a piano. Gann (2010 p X) expresses Cages philosophy in regards to his work and that Cage believes that silence a very integral part of music. That there is no such thing as total silence, unless in a vacuum (Gann, 2010 p X)

When considering an artwork by Jackson Pollock, viewers can instantly see the complexity in each work as no two pieces are the same. Even if given instructions on how to perform this work, artists would be unable to generate a copy that is exactly the same as the original (that is if they were using the same materials as the original artwork). This is of course if it is indeed a human performing the task. Should the piece be given to a computer, it could be argued that an exact replica could be generated in print form. In fact, two works were exhibited in a tour of Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice in 2015. This exhibition brought forth a whole new meaning to the inherent challenges conservators face in restoring the two pieces (Collin, 2015 p95), Mural and Alchemy.

76-2553-150_ph_web-640x331

Jackson Pollock, Alchemy, 1947

mural

Jackson Pollock, Mural, 1943

Deciphering (decoding) a piece of code that has been given to you brings a whole new meaning to both these artists and their works. To take an image then breaking it down into easily manageable steps in order to generate a new code exemplifies just how much work is actually needed in order to create a piece of work that is easily “put back together”. Especially when you have no access to the original. Having performed both tasks myself, I found that it is easy to begin a code with a complex set of instruction when first taking on the task. However, after doing this a few times, you soon begin to realise that the simpler you make the code, the easier it is to actually write instructions for images that are very complex that can then be de-coded by another person(s) with ease. Again, the simpler the code, the less likely there is to be misinterpretations of the piece. The same can be said when trying to de-code a piece of coding you have been given. The simpler the code is, the easier it is to decipher and re-create the image. Over all, after performing the tasks I was able to appreciate the works of Pollock and Cage far more.

 

References:

Colin, M 2015, Mural and Alchemy by Jackson Pollock, I 95, p95-97.

Gann, K 2010, No Such Thing as Silence: John Cage’s 4’33”, Yale University Press, Vol. 1.